When exercising, the body systems respond immediately to provide energy for the muscles to function. After regular and repeated training, these systems adapt to become more efficient.
Short-term effects of exercise on the body’s systems
When a person participates in training, cardiovascular, respiratory, energy, and muscle systems work together to deliver fuel to the working muscles and remove waste products.
When muscles begin to work, they need more oxygen so that the airways respond by getting more oxygen into the lungs. The blood carries more significant amounts of oxygen, and the heart responds by pumping more oxygen-rich blood around the body.
These effects are shown in the table:
Short term effects of exercise
|Cardiovascular system||Increase stroke volume (SV); increase in heart rate (HR); increase in heart volume (Q); increase in blood pressure (BP); redistribution of blood flow.|
|Respiratory system||Increase in respiratory rate (BR); increase in tidal volume (TV); increase in minute ventilation (VE)|
|Cardio-respiratory system||Increased oxygen uptake and transport to the working muscles; increase in carbon dioxide removal|
|Energy system||Increase in lactic acid (lactate) production|
|Muscular system||Muscle system Increase in temperature in muscles; increased flexibility (elasticity); muscle fatigue|